Τετάρτη, 30 Ιουλίου 2014

Cherokees Spoke Greek and...





... Came from East Mediterranean


       A cave entrance overlooking the Redbird River, a tributary of the South Fork of the Kentucky River in Clay County, Kentucky in the Daniel Boone National Forest, has inscriptions which according  to Kenneth B. Tankersley of the University of Cincinnati display a nineteenth-century example of writing in the Cherokee syllabary. 

   A local resident (Burchell) recognizes Greek writing in one inscription (called Christian Monogram #2) but his reading is unsatisfactory for a number of reasons.


Another record of Greek-speaking people in ancient America is the Possum Creek Stone, discovered by Gloria Farley in Oklahoma in the 1970s. It is discussed by her in Volume 2 of In Plain Sight as proof that the man history knows as Sequoyah did not invent the Cherokee syllabary.
The inscription can be read as Greek, HO-NI-KA-SA or ‘o nikasa, i.e. “This is the one who takes the prize of victory,” a common inscription for the pedestal upon which victors were crowned at athletic games. The use is Homeric, and the spelling Doric.

   A piece of evidence helps fill in the background of the arrival of Greeks in North America. Dating earlier time than its Mississipian Period context, it commemorates a peace treaty between the Cherokee and Shawnee. 

   The Cherokee chief wears a horse-hair crested helmet and carries the spear and shield of a Greek hoplite.

   In the Red Record or Walam Olum, we learn that before crossing the Mississippi, somewhere along the south bank of the Missouri, the Algonquians or Lenni Lenape (Delaware Indians), who are later allied with the Cherokee, encounter a foreign tribe they call the Stonys. Cherokee legends about Stone-coat demonstrate that the original Cherokee had metal armor and weapons.



To sum up, the Red Bird Petroglyph is a Greek inscription from the 2nd to 3rd century c.e., as announced recently by the Archeological Institute of America and the New York Times

   The Cherokee language, which today is Iroquoian, is the result of a relexification process in the distant past. It contains many relics of words of Greek origin, especially in the area of government, military terminology, mythology, athletics and ritual. 

   Cherokee music also reflects Greek origins. The Cherokee Indians are, quite literally, the Greeks of Native America.

   Keynote address for Ancient American History and Archeology Conference, Sandy, Utah, April 2, 2010Possum Creek Stone and Anomalous Cherokee DNA Point to East Mediterranean Origins (PPT)


Greek Words and Customs in Cherokee

Greek
Meaning
Cherokee
Meaning
alomenoi


dakos

dasis

tynchana

etheloikeoi

gennadas

huios Dios

illo, illas*


kakotechneo

kanon

karanos

kateis*

kerux

mona*

neika*

Ogyges

ouktenna

oulountata

skia

stix

tanawa*

(hoi en) telei

theatas*

theatron

Thrax

typho
wanderers (in a hopeless sense)

noxious, devouring beast, whale

hairy, shaggy like a beast

things that befall

volunteer settlers

noble

Son of Zeus (title of Herakles)

wrap, twist; rope


base arts, perjury, fraud

straight-edge used by athletes

a chief

assembly

herald

stopping place, way-station

contest

titan of Greek mythology

one not killed

declared healthy

ghost, shade

abominable

astronomical instrument

those in authority

spectator in a play

theater, assembly

 Thracian

raise a smoke, make sacrifice
eloh’; elohi


dakwa

dachi

tikano

eshelokee

kanat(i)

Su-too Jee

kilohi


kaktunta

kanuga

Koranu**

cahtiyis

skarirosken**

mona

anetcha

Ootschaye

Uktena

oolungtsata

atchina

Stichi

Tchlanua

tilihi

tetchata

tetchanun

tchaskiri**

Tathtowe,
 

migrants, wanderers; earth


mythic great fish

hairy water monster

history

Cherokee; original people

doctor, hunter

mythic strong man

twisted hair clan (cf. Hawaiian hilo)

taboo regulation

scraper used by ballplayers

war chief title

assembly house

speaker, herald

land where the Elohi tarried

ballplay

rival of Sutoo Jee (Herakles)

name of a dragon or serpent

divining crystal for health

ghost; cedar

name of dangerous serpent

Great Hawk

brave, warrior

Playful Cherokee fairy

ceremonial enclosure

sorcerer, Stoneclad

ceremonial title; firecracker  (smoke) bringer (Santa Claus)

 ______________     No 11

extracts from the: http://dnaconsultants.com


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Τρίτη, 29 Ιουλίου 2014

Between two Flags, Ypsilanti's city






A bust of Demetrios Ypsilanti stands 
between American and Greek flags 
at the base of the landmark Ypsilanti 
Water Tower.

The city of Ypsilanti
The city of Ypsilanti, Michigan in the United States, founded in 1825 during the Greek struggle for independence. Is named after Demetrius Ypsilanti, a hero in the Greek War of Independence.



Demetrios Ypsilantis


Dimitrios Ypsilantis, the selfless Greek warrior and politician, was born in 1793 in Constantinople. 

He studied at military academies in France and served in the Czar's Royal Guard in Petroupolis. Following a decision by the Society of Friends (Philiki Eteria), he went to the Peloponnese as his brother Alexander's* deputy, smuggling weapons and provisions.

He took part in Tripolis' siege, also in military operations in Nafplion, Argos, Korinthos, Dervenakia. The last victorious battle of the Revolution was waged by Dimitrios Ypsilantis at Petra, 1829. 


   When Kapodistrias came to Greece, Ypsilantis was made Field Marshall (the first in modern Greece) and put in charge of organizing the regular national army. 


   Dimitrios Ypsilantis was one of the most important figures of 1821: he sacrificed his personal fortune and future in order to help free his nation, fought for the restoration of Greek culture and cleared Greek territory of the Turkish Guard. 

   His health was unstable and died in Nafplion on August 1832.

   He was known for an affair with Manto Mavrogenous who was a Greek heroine of the Greek War of Independence.   


   Manto was a rich woman, that spent all her fortune for the Hellenic cause. Under her encouragement, her European friends contributed money and guns to the revolution.  


   She moved to Nafplio in 1823, in order to be in the core of the struggle, leaving her family as she was despised even by her mother because of her choices. 


   It is the time that Mavrogenous met Demetrius Ypsilanti, with whom she was engaged. Soon, she become famous around Europe for her beauty and bravery. 


   But in May of the same year, her home was totally burnt and her fortune was stolen, and as a result she went to Tripoli to live with Ypsilanti, while Papaflessas provided her with food.


   When Ypsilanti broke up with Mavrogenous, she went back to Nafplio, where she almost lived, deeply depressed, as a hobo and was not paid the debts of the money she had given for various battles. 


   After Ypsilanti's death and her political conflicts with Ioannis Kolettis, she was exiled from Nafplio and returned to Mykonos, where she occupied with the writing of her memoirs. While spending her fortune for the sake of the Greek war, she used to live in great poverty.


          Manto Mavrogenous
   A beautiful woman of aristocratic lineage, she grew up in an educated family, influenced by the Age of Enlightenment. 

She studied ancient Greek Philosophy and history at a college in Trieste, and spoke French, Italian  and Turkish fluently.


In 1809, she moved to Paros with her family, where she learned from her father that the Filiki Eteria was preparing what would become known as the Greek Revolution and later, in 1818, after her father's death, she left for Tinos. 


   When the struggle began, she went to Mykonos, the island of her origin, and invited the leaders of Mykonos to join the revolution.


   She equipped, manned and "privateered" at her own expense, two ships with which she pursued the pirates who attacked Mykonos and other islands of Cyclades. 


   On 22 October 1822, the Mykonians repulsed the Ottoman Turks, who had debarked on the island, under her leadership. She also equipped 150 men to campaign in the Peloponnese and sent forces and financial support to Samos, when the island was threatened by the Turks. 


   Later, Mavrogenous sent another corps of fifty men to Peloponnese, who took part in the Siege of Tripolitsa and the fall of the town to the Greek rebels. 


   Together, she spent money for the relief of the soldiers and their families, the preparation of a campaign to Northern Greece and the support of several philhellenes.


   She later put together a fleet of six ships and an infantry consisting of sixteen companies, with fifty men each, and took part in the battle in Karystos in 1822, and funded a campaign to Chios, but she did not prevent it from the massacre. Another group of fifty men was sent to reinforce Nikitaras in the Battle of Dervenakia. 


   When the Ottoman fleet appeared in Cyclades, she returned to Tinos and sold her jewelry to finance the equipment of 200 men who fought the enemy and cherish two thousand people who had survived from the first siege of Missolonghi. Her men participated in several other battles like those of Pelion, Phthiotis and Livadeia.


   Mavrogenous led enlightenment expeditions in Europe and addressed an appeal to the women of Paris, to side up with the Greeks.  In her letter to the women of Paris Manto Mavrogenous writes:

"The Greeks, born to be liberal, will owe their independence only to themselves. So I don't ask your intervention to force your compatriots to help us. But only to change the idea of sending help to our enemies.The war spreads the horrible death..





Constantine the Great and  his sword with 
the inscription 

"Lord, judge those who wrong me,
who battle me, rule over the Kings".



The Sword of Constantine the Great

When the war ended Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first head of state of independent Greece (1827–33),  awarded her the rank of the Lieutenant General and granted her a dwelling in Nafplio, where she moved.  
Manto gave to Kapodistrias a treasurable sword  that she owned.  That sword is said to come from the times of Constantine the Great, with the inscription:  


"Lord, judge those who wrong me, who battle me, rule over the Kings". 

She died on Paros in July 1848, in oblivion and poverty, having spent all her fortune for the War of Independence.
Greece has honored this heroine by naming several streets after her. The Greek government has released several commemorative coins in her honor. 
A film was also made about her life, titled Manto Mavrogenous(1971)
Her home still stands in the island of Paros as a historical monument, located close to the Panagia Ekatontapyliani (the Church of the Virgin Mary) which, tradition says, was founded by Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great.

__________     No 10



* Alexander Ypsilantis (1792–1828), brother of Dimitrios Ypsilantis, was a member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family, was a prince of the Danubian Principalities, a senior officer of the Omperial Russian cavalry during the Mapoleonic Wars, and a leader of the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization that coordinated the beginning of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. 


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Δευτέρα, 28 Ιουλίου 2014

The Split Between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches soon Ends





2014 anno Domini




Pope Francis bent down and kissed Ecumenical 
Patriarch’s hand in remarkable show of papal respect

Pope Francis and the spiritual leader of the world's Orthodox Christians prayed together Sunday inside the Jerusalem church that symbolizes their divisions, calling their historic meeting a step toward healing the centuries -old Catholic-Orthodox schism.
Francis and Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew embraced one another in the stone courtyard outside the 12th century Church of the Holy Sepulcher and recited the "Our Father" prayer together once inside, an unprecedented moment of solemnity at the spot where Catholic and Orthodox believe Jesus was crucified, buried and resurrected.

The Great Schism of 1054.
The separation between the Eastern and Western churches



 BLUE Catholics    RED Orthodox      PURPLE Protestants    GREEN Muslims 

   History

     The (arch)bishopric of Constantinople has had a continuous history since the founding of the city in 330 AD by Constantine the Great. 
   After Constantine the Great had enlarged Byzantium to make it into a new capital city in 330.

   Soon after the transfer of the Roman capital, the bishopric was elevated to an archbishopric. 

   For many decades the heads of the church of Rome opposed this ambition,
   In 381, the First Council of Constantinople declared that 
"The Bishop of Constantinople shall have the primacy of honour after the Bishop of Rome, because it is New Rome" (canon iii). 

   The Patriarchs refused to confirm this canon. Nonetheless, the prestige of the office continued to grow not only because of the obvious patronage of the Byzantine Emperor but because of its overwhelming physical and geographical importance. In practice, the Bishop of Rome eventually acknowledged this situation.....

   The Council of Chalcedon in 451 established Constantinople as a patriarchate with ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Asia Minor (the dioceses of Asiane and Pontus) and Thrace as well as over the barbaric territories, non-converted lands outside the defined area of the Western Patriarchate (Old Rome) and the other three patriarchates, 

   Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, gave it appellate jurisdiction extraterritorially over canon law decisions by the other patriarchs and granted it honours equal to those belonging to the first Christian see, Rome, in terms of primacy, Rome retaining however its seniority (canon xxviii). 

   Leo I refused to accept this canon, basing himself on the fact that it was made in the absence of his legates. In the 6th century, the official title became that of "Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch













27 ante Cristum


             The Roman Empire...

   When the Roman Empire started to grow and Rome became a more powerful city, a top government position became more and more attractive. 
   Therefore, more and more ambitious men got involved in government. 

   These men believed that Rome would be better served by one man governing the city and empire, as opposed to a group of elected officials. 
   These sole rulers were called emperors. The story behind the first emperor involves one of Ancient Rome's most famous stories.
   The great Julius Caesar led ancient Rome into the next system of rule known as the 
Roman Empire. 

   Julius Caesar wanted to control all of Rome and its empire. This would have led to the end of the system of government used in Ancient Rome for many years. When making a speech in the Senate to support his belief in a one-man rule, Caesar was murdered by Brutus who wanted to keep the old way going. 

   This murder did not stop the problem as Caesar’s supporters started a civil war to try to force their wishes onto Rome. 
   The war was long and costly. Exhaustion led to many Romans supporting Augustus, Caesar’s nephew. To many people he seemed to obvious choice to end the chaos Rome had descended into. 
   Augustus was seen as a strong ruler and he became emperor in 27 BC, bringing to an end the republic of Rome.


   The Roman Empire started only a few years before the birth of Christ…  
   The empire was continuously exposed to geo-political pressures…   To address more effectively the countless invaders, split into two manageable halves.

   The western half dissolve into the turmoils of the Middle Ages.
   The Eastern half (Constantinople) acted as a defensive stronghold against the marauding Mohammedans well into the 15th Century and allowed Christian Europe to reorganize itself and progress through the Renaissance and into "the age of enlightenment".


   The capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans on May 29, 1453 marked the end of the Roman Empire...

______________     No 9

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